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Old 06-30-2014, 07:49 PM
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Default Chapter 8: Notes

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.......The Elegant Universe
THE ELEGANT UNIVERSE, Brian Greene, 1999, 2003
```(annotated and with added bold highlights by Epsilon=One)

Chapter 8: Notes
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1. This is a simple idea, but since the imprecision of common language can sometimes lead to confusion, two clarifying remarks are in order. First, we are assuming that the ant is constrained to live on the surface of the garden hose. If, on the contrary, the ant could burrow into the interior of the hose—if it could penetrate into the rubber material of the hose—we would need three numbers to specify its position, since we would need to also specify how deeply it had burrowed. But if the ant lives only on the hose's surface, its location can be specified with just two numbers. This leads to our second point. Even with the ant living on the hose's surface, we could, if we so chose, specify its location with three numbers: the ordinary left-right, back-forth, and up-down positions in our familiar three-dimensional space. But once we know that the ant lives on the surface of the hose, the two numbers referred to in the text give the minimal data that uniquely specify the ant's position. This is what we mean by saying that the surface of the hose is two-dimensional. Return to Text

2. Surprisingly, the physicists Savas Dimopoulos, Nima Arkani-Hamed, and Gia Dvali, building on earlier insights of Ignatios Antoniadis and Joseph Lykken, have pointed out that even if an extra curled-up dimension were as large as a millimeter in size, it is possible that it would not yet have been detected experimentally. The reason is that particle accelerators probe the microworld by utilizing the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces. The gravitational force, being incredibly feeble at technologically accessible energies, is generally ignored. But Dimopoulos and his collaborators note that if the extra curled-up dimension has an impact predominantly on the gravitational force (something, it turns out, that is quite plausible in string theory), all extant experiments could well have overlooked it. New, highly sensitive gravitational experiments will look for such "large" curled-up dimensions in the near future. A positive result would be one of the greatest discoveries of all time. Return to Text

3. Edwin Abbott, Flatland (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991). Return to Text

4. A. Einstein in letter to T. Kaluza as quoted in Abraham Pais, "Subtle is the Lord": The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), p. 330. Return to Text

5. A. Einstein in letter to T. Kaluza as quoted in D. Freedman and P. van Nieuwenhuizen, "The Hidden Dimensions of Spacetime," Scientific American 252 (1985), 62. Return to Text

6. Ibid. Return to Text

7. Physicists found that the most difficult feature of the standard model to incorporate through a higher-dimensional formulation is something known as chirality. So as not to overburden the discussion we have not covered this concept in the main text, but for readers who are interested we do so briefly here. Imagine that someone shows you a film of some particular scientific experiment and confronts you with the unusual challenge of determining whether the film shot the experiment directly or whether it shot the experiment by looking at its reflection in a minor. As the cinematographer was quite expert, there are no telltale signs of a mirror being involved. Is this a challenge you can meet? In the mid-1950s, the theoretical insights of T. D. Lee and C. N. Yang, and the experimental results of C. S. Wu and collaborators, showed that you can meet the challenge, so long as an appropriate experiment had been filmed. Namely, their work established that the laws of the universe are not perfectly mirror symmetric in the sense that the mirror-reflected version of certain processes—those directly dependent on the weak force—cannot happen in our world, even though the original process can. And so, as you watch the film if you see one of these forbidden processes occur, you will know that you are watching a mirror-reflected image of the experiment, as opposed to the experiment itself. Since mirrors interchange left and right, the work of Lee, Yang, and Wu established that the universe is not perfectly left-right symmetric—in the language of the field, the universe is chiral. It is this feature of the standard model (the weak force, in particular) that physicists found nearly impossible to incorporate into a higher-dimensional supergravity framework. To avoid confusion, we note that in Chapter 10 we will discuss a concept in string theory known as "mirror symmetry," but the use of the word "mirror" in that context is completely different from its use here. Return to Text

8. For the mathematically inclined reader, we note that a Calabi-Yau manifold is a complex Kahler manifold with vanishing first Chern class. In 1957 Calabi conjectured that every such manifold admits a Ricci-flat metric, and in 1977 Yau proved this to be true. Return to Text

9. This illustration is courtesy of Andrew Hanson of Indiana University, and was made using the Mathematica 3-D graphing package. Return to Text

10. For the mathematically inclined reader we note that this particular Calabi-Yau space is a real three-dimensional slice through the quintic hypersurface in complex projective four-space. Return to Text
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.......The Elegant Universe
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