**THE ELEGANT UNIVERSE,****Brian Greene,**1999, 2003

```(annotated and with added

**bold highlights by Epsilon=One**)

**Chapter 2 - Space, Time, and the Eye of the Beholder**

Motion through Spacetime

The constancy of the speed of light has resulted in a replacement of the traditional view of space and time as rigid and objective structures with a new conception in which they depend intimately on the relative motion between observer and observed. We could end our discussion here, having realized that moving objects evolve in slow motion and are foreshortened. Special relativity, though, provides a more deeply unified perspective to encompass these phenomena.

To understand this perspective, let's imagine a rather impractical automobile that rapidly attains its cruising speed of 100 miles per hour and sticks to this speed, no more, no less, until it is shut off and rolls to a halt.

Let's also imagine that, due to his growing reputation as a skilled driver, Slim is asked to test-drive the vehicle on a long, straight, and wide track in the middle of a flat stretch of desert. As the distance between the start and finish lines is 10 miles, the car should cover this distance in one-tenth of an hour, or six minutes. Jim, who moonlights as an automobile engineer, inspects the data recorded from dozens of test-drives and is disturbed to see that although most were timed to be six minutes, the last few are a good deal longer: 6.5, 7, and even 7.5 minutes. At first he suspects a mechanical problem, since those times seem to indicate that the car was traveling slower than 100 miles per hour on the last three runs. Yet after examining the car extensively he convinces himself that it is in perfect condition. Unable to explain the anomalously long times, he consults Slim and asks him about the final few runs. Slim has a simple explanation. He tells Jim that, since the track runs from east to west, as it got later in the day, the sun was glaring into his view. During the last three runs it was so bad that he drove from one end of the track to the other at a slight angle. He draws a rough sketch of the path he took on the last three runs, and it is shown in Figure 2.5. The explanation for the three longer times is now perfectly clear: the path from start to finish is longer when traveling at an angle and therefore, at the same speed of 100 miles per hour, it will take more time to cover. Put another way, when traveling at an angle, part of the 100 miles per hour is expended on going from south to north, leaving a bit less to accomplish the trip from east to west. This implies that it will take a little longer to traverse the strip.

As stated, Slim's explanation is easy to understand; however, it is worth rephrasing it slightly for the conceptual leap we are about to take. The north-south and east-west directions are two independent spatial dimensions in which a car can move. (It can also move vertically, when traversing a mountain pass, for example, but we will not need that ability here.) Slim's explanation illustrates that even though the car was traveling at 100 miles per hour on each and every run, during the last few runs it shared this speed between the two dimensions and hence appeared to be going slower than 100 miles per hour in the east-west direction. During the previous runs, all 100 miles per hour were devoted to purely east-west motion; during the last three, part of this speed was used for north-south motion as well.

Einstein found that precisely this idea—the sharing of motion between different dimensions—underlies all of the remarkable physics of special relativity, so long as we realize that not only can spatial dimensions share an object's motion, but the time dimension can share this motion as well. In fact, in the majority of circumstances, most of an object's motion is through time, not space. Let's see what this means.

Motion through space is a concept we learn about early in life. Although we often don't think of things in such terms, we also learn that we, our friends, our belongings, and so forth all move through time, as well. When we look at a clock or a wristwatch, even while we idly sit and watch TV, the reading on the watch is constantly changing, constantly "moving forward in time." We and everything around us are aging, inevitably passing from one moment in time to the next. In fact, the mathematician Hermann Minkowski, and ultimately Einstein as well, advocated thinking about time as another dimension of the universe—the fourth dimension—in some ways quite similar to the three spatial dimensions in which we find ourselves immersed. Although it sounds abstract, the notion of time as a dimension is actually concrete. When we want to meet someone, we tell them where "in space" we will expect to see them—for instance, the 9th floor of the building on the corner of 53rd Street and 7th Avenue. There are three pieces of information here (9th floor, 53rd Street, 7th Avenue) reflecting a particular location in the three spatial dimensions of the universe. Equally important, however, is our specification of when we expect to meet them—for instance, at 3 P.M. This piece of information tells us where "in time" our meeting will take place. Events are therefore specified by four pieces of information: three in space and one in time. Such data, it is said, specifies the location of the event in space and in time, or in

Since this view proclaims that space and time are simply different examples of dimensions, can we speak of an object's speed through time in a manner resembling the concept of its speed through space? We can.

A big clue for how to do this comes from a central piece of information we have already encountered. When an object moves through space relative to us, its clock runs slow compared to ours. That is, the speed of its

We also see that this framework immediately incorporates the fact that there is a limit to an object's spatial velocity: the maximum speed through space occurs if

To understand this perspective, let's imagine a rather impractical automobile that rapidly attains its cruising speed of 100 miles per hour and sticks to this speed, no more, no less, until it is shut off and rolls to a halt.

**Figure 2.4**A moving object is shortened in the direction of its motion.

Let's also imagine that, due to his growing reputation as a skilled driver, Slim is asked to test-drive the vehicle on a long, straight, and wide track in the middle of a flat stretch of desert. As the distance between the start and finish lines is 10 miles, the car should cover this distance in one-tenth of an hour, or six minutes. Jim, who moonlights as an automobile engineer, inspects the data recorded from dozens of test-drives and is disturbed to see that although most were timed to be six minutes, the last few are a good deal longer: 6.5, 7, and even 7.5 minutes. At first he suspects a mechanical problem, since those times seem to indicate that the car was traveling slower than 100 miles per hour on the last three runs. Yet after examining the car extensively he convinces himself that it is in perfect condition. Unable to explain the anomalously long times, he consults Slim and asks him about the final few runs. Slim has a simple explanation. He tells Jim that, since the track runs from east to west, as it got later in the day, the sun was glaring into his view. During the last three runs it was so bad that he drove from one end of the track to the other at a slight angle. He draws a rough sketch of the path he took on the last three runs, and it is shown in Figure 2.5. The explanation for the three longer times is now perfectly clear: the path from start to finish is longer when traveling at an angle and therefore, at the same speed of 100 miles per hour, it will take more time to cover. Put another way, when traveling at an angle, part of the 100 miles per hour is expended on going from south to north, leaving a bit less to accomplish the trip from east to west. This implies that it will take a little longer to traverse the strip.

**Figure 2.5**Due to the glaring late-afternoon sun, Slim drove at an increasingly greater angle on the last three runs.

Einstein found that precisely this idea—the sharing of motion between different dimensions—underlies all of the remarkable physics of special relativity, so long as we realize that not only can spatial dimensions share an object's motion, but the time dimension can share this motion as well. In fact, in the majority of circumstances, most of an object's motion is through time, not space. Let's see what this means.

Motion through space is a concept we learn about early in life. Although we often don't think of things in such terms, we also learn that we, our friends, our belongings, and so forth all move through time, as well. When we look at a clock or a wristwatch, even while we idly sit and watch TV, the reading on the watch is constantly changing, constantly "moving forward in time." We and everything around us are aging, inevitably passing from one moment in time to the next. In fact, the mathematician Hermann Minkowski, and ultimately Einstein as well, advocated thinking about time as another dimension of the universe—the fourth dimension—in some ways quite similar to the three spatial dimensions in which we find ourselves immersed. Although it sounds abstract, the notion of time as a dimension is actually concrete. When we want to meet someone, we tell them where "in space" we will expect to see them—for instance, the 9th floor of the building on the corner of 53rd Street and 7th Avenue. There are three pieces of information here (9th floor, 53rd Street, 7th Avenue) reflecting a particular location in the three spatial dimensions of the universe. Equally important, however, is our specification of when we expect to meet them—for instance, at 3 P.M. This piece of information tells us where "in time" our meeting will take place. Events are therefore specified by four pieces of information: three in space and one in time. Such data, it is said, specifies the location of the event in space and in time, or in

*spacetime,*for short. In this sense, time is another dimension.Since this view proclaims that space and time are simply different examples of dimensions, can we speak of an object's speed through time in a manner resembling the concept of its speed through space? We can.

A big clue for how to do this comes from a central piece of information we have already encountered. When an object moves through space relative to us, its clock runs slow compared to ours. That is, the speed of its

*motion through time slows down.*Here's the leap: Einstein proclaimed that all objects in the universe are*always*traveling through spacetime at one fixed speed—that of light. This is a strange idea; we are used to the notion that objects travel at speeds considerably less than that of light. We have repeatedly emphasized this as the reason relativistic effects are so unfamiliar in the everyday world. All of this is true. We are presently talking about an object's combined speed through*all four*dimensions—three space and one time—and it is the object's speed in this generalized sense that is equal to that of light. To understand this more fully and to reveal its importance, we note that like the impractical single-speed car discussed above, this one fixed speed can be shared between the different dimensions—different space*and*time dimensions, that is. If an object is sitting still (relative to us) and consequently does not move through space at all, then in analogy to the first runs of the car, all of the object's motion is used to travel through one dimension—in this case, the time dimension. Moreover, all objects that are at rest relative to us and to each other move through time—they age—at exactly the same rate or speed. If an object does move through space, however, this means that some of the previous motion through time must be diverted. Like the car traveling at an angle, this sharing of motion implies that the object will travel more slowly through time than its stationary counterparts, since some of its motion is now being used to move through space. That is, its clock will tick more slowly if it moves through space. This is exactly what we found earlier. We now see that time slows down when an object moves relative to us because this diverts some of its motion through time into motion through space. The speed of an object through space is thus merely a reflection of how much of its motion through time is diverted.*6*We also see that this framework immediately incorporates the fact that there is a limit to an object's spatial velocity: the maximum speed through space occurs if

*all*of an object's motion through time is diverted to motion through space. This occurs when all of its previous light-speed motion through time is diverted to light-speed motion through space. But having used up all of its motion through time, this is the*fastest*speed through space that the object—any object—can possibly achieve. This is analogous to our car being test-driven directly in the north-south direction. Just as the car will have no speed left for motion in the east-west dimension, something traveling at light speed through space will have no speed left for motion through time. Thus light does not get old; a photon that emerged from the big bang is the same age today as it was then. There is no passage of time at light speed.