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Old 05-03-2014, 06:58 AM
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Default A Super-Embarrassment of Riches

Table of Contents
.......The Elegant Universe
THE ELEGANT UNIVERSE, Brian Greene, 1999, 2003
```(annotated and with added bold highlights by Epsilon=One)
Chapter 7 - The "Super" in Superstrings
A Super-Embarrassment of Riches
If someone tells you that they have solved the mystery of Amelia Earhart's fate, you might be skeptical at first, but if they have a well-documented, thoroughly pondered explanation, you would probably hear them out and, who knows, you might even be convinced. But what if, in the next breath, they tell you that they actually have a second explanation as well. You listen patiently and are surprised to find the alternate explanation to be as well documented and thought through as the first. And after finishing the second explanation, you are presented with a third, a fourth, and even a fifth explanation—each different from the others and yet equally convincing. No doubt, by the end of the experience you would feel no closer to Amelia Earhart's true fate than you did at the outset. In the arena of fundamental explanations, more is definitely less.

By 1985, string theory—notwithstanding the justified excitement it was engendering—was starting to sound like our overzealous Earhart expert. The reason is that by 1985 physicists realized that supersymmetry, by then a central element in the structure of string theory, could actually be incorporated into string theory in not one but five different ways. Each method results in a pairing of bosonic and fermionic vibrational patterns, but the details of this pairing as well as numerous other properties of the resulting theories differ substantially. Although their names are not all that important, it's worth recording that these five supersymmetric string theories are called the Type I theory, the Type IIA theory, the Type IIB theory, the Heterotic type 0(32) theory (pronounced "oh-thirty-two"), and the Heterotic type E8 x E8, theory (pronounced "e-eight times e-eight"). All the features of string theory that we have discussed to this point are valid for each of these theories—they differ only in the finer details.

Having five different versions of what is supposedly the T.O.E.—possibly the ultimate unified theory—was quite an embarrassment for string theorists. Just as there is only one true explanation for whatever happened to Amelia Earhart (regardless of whether we will ever find it), we expect the same to be true regarding the deepest, most fundamental understanding of how the world works. We live in one universe; we expect one explanation.

One suggestion for resolving this problem might be that although there are five different superstring theories, four might be ruled out simply by experiment, leaving one true and relevant explanatory framework. But even if this were the case, we would still be left with the nagging question of why the other theories exist in the first place. In the wry words of Witten, "If one of the five theories describes our universe, who lives in the other four worlds?" 7 A physicist's dream is that the search for the ultimate j answers will lead to a single, unique, absolutely inevitable conclusion. Ideally, the final theory—whether string theory or something else—should be the way it is because there simply is no other possibility. If we were to discover that there is only one logically sound theory incorporating the
basic ingredients of relativity and quantum mechanics, many feel that we would have reached the deepest understanding of why the universe has the properties it does. In short, this would be unified-theory paradise. 8

As we will see in Chapter 12, recent research has taken superstring theory one giant step closer to this unified utopia by showing that the five different theories are, remarkably, actually five different ways of describing one and the same overarching theory. Superstring theory has the uniqueness pedigree.

Things seem to be falling into place, but, as we will discuss in the next chapter, unification through string theory does require one more significant departure from conventional wisdom.
Table of Contents
.......The Elegant Universe
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